The AOGEOSS activities are grouped into two categories (Fig. 1).
More than 60 percent of the world population lives in Asia. The Asian monsoon brings a rich-water environment. However, the Asian monsoon often causes serious floods, landslides, droughts, water scarcity, and water pollution problems. Climate change is now a fundamental threat in Asia. To address the Asian water-related issues, the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI) was established in 2005. Responding to the data needs, GEOSS/member countries collected and archived hydrological data under the open data policy of the GEOSS. The Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS) contributes to this data integration. GEOSS/ supports capacity building through a wide range of training courses for practitioners and policy makers.
In 2015, the international community agreed on three major accords: the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework), the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs), and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change (Paris agreement). These agreements collectively present an urgent need and opportunity for action in 2016 and beyond. There are important connections among these agreements. For example, the SDGs and Paris Agreement identify actions that can build resilience against both hydro-climate hazards, floods and droughts.
Responding to these directions, GEOSS/AWCI has stepped into the second phase based on the discussions at the Asia Water Cycle Symposium (AWCS2016) held in Tokyo in March 2016. The Symposium focused on flood and drought issues in the Asia-Oceanic region. It is the time for us to provide a stepping-stone for addressing existing gaps in implementing a holistic approach to water-related disaster risk reduction towards sustainable development in the Asia-Oceanic region.
Leaders: Tetsukazu Yahara (Kyushu University, Japan), Eun-Shik Kim (Kookming University, Korea), Sheila Vergara (ASEAN Center for Biodiversity, Philippines)
Since its foundation in 2009, AP-BON has been developed as a coordinated network contributing to CBD and IPBES through observations of the states and trends of biodiversity contributing to CBD and IPBES through observations of the states and trends of biodiversity and ecosystems in the Asia-Pacific region. AP-BON is promoting not only observations but also data sharing and published data papers and three volumes of books in which various data have been compiled. Based on those achievements and considering contribution to the achievements of CBD Aichi targets, AP-BON will develop a new work plan towards 2020.
One of the challenges of AP BON towards 2020 is to promote multi-scale observations of spatial and temporal changes in biodiversity and ecosystem structure and functions (e.g., primary production) by combining in situ field surveys, sensor networks, satellite observations and various models. AP-BON will facilitate (i) in depth observations at some - placed along the environmental gradients, to find essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) and key biophysical characteristics that can be measured by satellites, (ii) multi-point observations at a network of inventory sites spatially variable changes of biodiversity and ecosystems under various pressures including land use changes and also various efforts of conservation and restoration, and (iii) integrated analyses of the changes in biodiversity, ecosystems, and human-nature interactions.
More specifically, AP-BON will work on the following subtasks.
Subtask 2.1 Promoting data sharing, increasing access to data and filling gaps in data availability
Subtask 2.2 Networking observation sites in collaboration with ILTER, GBIF, and IUCN
Subtask 2.3 Monitoring states and changes in biodiversity, ecosystems and human-nature interactions
Subtask 2.4 Contributing to Global Platforms including IPBES and CBD
Subtask 2.5 Publishing AP-BON books
Leaders: Pep Canadell (GCP-CSIRO, Australia), Yi Liu (CAM-CMA, China), Nobuko Saigusa (NIES, Japan)
The budgets of carbon and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) have many uncertainties that make it difficult to evaluate the success of climate change mitigation strategies.
Improvements in long-term, high quality observing systems within and across the atmospheric, oceanic, terrestrial, and human domains are required to quantify GHG sources and sinks, to understand changes in the carbon cycle and hence the climate system, and to assess the level of effort required in order to mitigate and adapt to climate change.
The work of the GEO Carbon and GHG Initiative is motivated by the long-term vision of an independent system for monitoring and evaluating changes in the carbon cycle and GHG emissions as a result of human activities and climate change, and to provide decision makers with timely policy-relevant information, recommendations, and services.
Subtask 3.1 Data access and availability: to provide long-term, high quality and open access near-real-time data and data products, complying with the GEOSS principles, from a domain-overarching carbon cycle and GHGs monitoring system.
Subtask 3.2 Optimization of observational networks: to develop and implement on an ongoing basis, a procedure for achieving observations of identified essential carbon cycle variables within user-defined specifications and at minimum total cost.
Subtask 3.3 Budget calculations and breakdown across scales to support policy implementation: to develop consistent budgets of GHGs (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from local/urban to regional scales in order to contribute to the global one using a combination of observations, inventories, models and data assimilation techniques.
Leaders: Kentaro Ando, Takeshi Kawano (JAMSTEC, Japan)
5th GEOSS-AP symposium by the in-situ open and coastal observational data towards societal uses such as fishery management, weather and seasonal predictions, and ocean predictions. As the outcome of the 7th GEOSS- -AP Ocean Data Networking System (AP-ONS: http://www.jamstec.go.jp/geossap/Planet Initiative and contributions of IOC/WESTPAC. The function of the AP-ONS is to provide the list of observation inventory and the linkages to the data providers in the AP region, so to provide solid route to uses who look for in-situ ocean observational data in the AP region. The future task shall be to expand and enhance the function of inventory to global initiative, Blue Planet Initiative.
Leaders: Shin-ichi Sobue, Kei Oyoshi (JAXA, Japan), Thuy Le Toan (CESIBO, France)
The Asia-RiCE initiative (http://www.asia-rice.org) has been organized to enhance rice production estimates through the use of Earth observation satellites data, and seeks to ensure that Asian rice crops are appropriately represented within GEO Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEO-GLAM) to support FAO Agriculture Market Information System (FAO-AMIS). Asia-RiCE is composed of national teams that are actively contributing to the Crop Monitor for AMIS and developing technical demonstrations of rice crop monitoring activities using both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data (Radarsat-2 from 2013; Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 from 2015; TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed, RISAT, and others) and optical imagery (such as from MODIS, SPOT-5, Landsat, and Sentinel-2) for 100x100km Technical Demonstration Sites (TDS) as a phase 1 (2013-2015) in Asia with satellite based cultivated area and growing stage map in cooperation with ground based observation and field survey activities in the countries.
The Asia-RiCE teams are also developing satellite-based agro-met information for rice growth outlook, crop calendars and damage assessment such as drought, flood and high temperature, in cooperation with ASEAN food security information system (AFSIS) for selected countries (currently Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippine, and Japan; http://www.afsisnc.org/blog), using JAXA's Satellite-based MonItoring Network system (JASMIN including precipitation, drought index, temperature, soil moisture, NDVI, etc.) as a contribution to the FAO AMIS outlook with the University of Tokyo (http://suzaku.eorc.jaxa.jp/cgi-bin/gcomw/jasm/jasm_top.cgi).
From 2016 as a phase 2 (2016-2017), Asia-RiCE initiative deploys up-scaling activity from a TDS (100x100km) to major crop areas or entire country to implement operational use for rice crop production information in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam and top-10 rice producing provinces in Indonesia using EO data in cooperation with VAST, VNSC, CESBIO, MOA/Indoensia, LAPAN and JAXA with TDSs in other countries and rice crop outlook.
The AOGEOSS will propose a series of new regional applications such as Monitoring and evaluation of drought in Asia-Oceania region, Environment Monitoring and Protection, Ocean and Islands, and Himalayan GEOSS. AOGEOSS will implement new applications by step by step approach, beginning with case study after careful consultations among members. The newly proposed application activities and the foundational tasks are described in details as the following.
Leaders: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava (UNESCAP), JIA Li (RADI, China)
Asia-Oceania is the largest and most densely populated and drought-prone region in the world. Due to climate change, the frequency, severity and duration of droughts, drought will likely increase in the future. The task described here aims at applying Earth Observations and other Space-based technologies to provide timely and free access to space-based data/products and services for effective drought monitoring, evaluation, and management.
Subtask 6.1 Create and maintain a drought monitoring cooperative mechanism to provide satellite products for general drought monitoring and higher resolution products for identified high drought risk areas; provide timely, on-demand high resolution data products for areas affected by drought anomalies to support deployment of remedial and impact mitigation interventions; assist its members in developing localized products and services for relevant decision making. The monitoring cooperative mechanism will be established in December 2017.
Subtask 6.2 Establish a framework to integrate multiple EO data acquired by different satellites and by different Countries to monitor and evaluate drought in Asia-Oceania region using EO data resources. This framework will be established in June 2018.
Subtask 6.3 Develop a comprehensive, inclusive and robust information system, which is also considered as a decision support system, for disaster management to combine disaster data with socio-economic data for evidence-based policymaking and effective disaster management. This information system will be operational in December 2018.
Subtask 6.4 Generate policy-relevant advices to support governments to make evidence-based decisions on how and when to prepare for drought. The advices for decision-making will be released in December 2019.
Leaders: LIU Qinhuo (RADI, CAS), Alfredo Huete (UTS, Australia), LIU Jian (UNEP-IEMP), Mario Hernandez (Future Earth).
Environmental deterioration is a significant challenge in the AO region. From 2012, the National Remote Sensing Center of China ( NRSCC ), Ministry of Science and Technology of China has continually carried out and released Annual Report on Remote Sensing Monitoring of Global Ecosystem and Environment (GEO ARC), integrating a series of products from National High-tech Research and Development Program. The task proposed here will mainly focus on the monitoring of the regional land use/cover change, ecological environmental conditions, and atmospheric environmental conditions. Accordingly, there are three sub-tasks included, which are closely connected with the Task 10 and Task 11.
Subtask 7.1 Land Use/Cover Change Monitoring for Asia-Oceania Region Subtask Team: CHEN Jun (ISPRS), Peng Gong(Tsinghua University), Zhihai Gao (CAF), Zhenguo Niu(RADI, CAS) Monitor the regional Land use/cover by using the long time series of satellite data such as Landsat TM, MSS, and the new satellite data such as the European Sentinel series and Chinese ZY, HJ and GF series satellites. The Land use/cover change, such as urban expansion, desertification, etc., have significant influence to and get obvious feedback from the climate change.
A7.1.1 Construct the AO regional land use/cover remote sensing product validation network,
A7.1.2 Algorithm development for the Classification or change detection based on the DATA CUBE. Produce new time series of 30m AO regional land use/cover product.
A7.1.3 Annual report on the land use/cover change to evaluate the urban expansion and desertification of the AO region.
Subtask 7.2 Ecological Environment Monitoring for Asia-Oceania Region Subtask Team: LIU Qinhuo (RADI, China), Alfredo Huete (UTS, Australia), Zheng Niu(RADI, China), Shunlin Liang(UMD, USA), LIU Liangyun (RADI, China), FAN Jinglong ( NSMC, China) and other participants.
Unprecedented ecosystem, environmental and climate change in the AO region including are a consequence of rapid development of human society and with further anticipated growth there are key technical and social capacity solutions that at will be require to measure, adapt and where possible mitigate these effects on important forestry, agricultural and grass ecosystems in AO region.
A7.2.1 Construct the AO regional ecosystem parameter remote sensing product validation
A7.2.2 Develop the ecosystem parameter retrieval algorithm (NDVI, EVI, LAI, FVC, FPAR, NPP, BIOMASS, and Phenology et al.,) for AO regional scale, based on the DATA CUBE.
A7.2.3 Building the ecosystem monitoring System for Asia-Oceania region and produce the 30m to 1km ecosystem environmental product based on the multi-source remote sensing data, integrating the USA, Chinese, Japanese and European satellites.
A7.2.4 Annual report on the ecosystem environmental condition and the ecosystem evaluation related with climate change for the AO region.
Subtask 7.3 Atmospheric Environment Monitoring for Asia-Oceania Region Subtask Team: GU Xingfa (RADI, China), QIN Yi (CSIRO, Australia), CHENG Tianhai (RADI, China) and other participants.
Monitor the Asia-Oceania Atmospheric environment quality, including studying the temporal and spatial variation of aerosol optical properties, particulate matter, greenhouse gases and trace gases, evaluating the control of major air pollution events and the impact on the regional atmospheric environment, providing technology and data for the regional air quality monitoring and regional coordinated control over Asia-Oceania, improving the prediction of the reliability of future air quality change over Asia-Oceania.
A7.3.1 Construct the AO regional atmospheric parameter remote sensing product validation
A7.3.2 Develop the atmospheric parameter (aerosol optical properties, particulate matter, greenhouse gases and trace gases et al.,) remote sensing retrieval model.
A7.3.3 Building the Atmospheric environmental monitoring System for Asia-Oceania region and produce the Atmospheric environmental product based on the multi-source remote sensing data.
A7.3.4 Annual report on the atmospheric environmental condition and the major air pollution event evaluation for the AO region.
Leaders: Andy Steven (CSIRO, Australia), Simon Albert (University of Queensland,Australia), TANG Danling (SCSIO, China), POGO, IOC, CZCP, Blue Planet.
is committed to stewardship of the oceans for a healthy, safe and prosperous future for all .
Blue Planet is the integrating coastal and oceans GEO initiative seek to address these issues and AO GEOSS will provide an important regional mechanism to address a number of significant issues including rapid coastal ecosystem (mangroves, seagrass, coral reefs) loss, as well as unprecedented climate change (e.g. reginal climate perturbations, sea level rise, Tsunamis) that risk coastal nations and particularly the many small island developing nations of Oceania which are subject to rapid seal level rise. Thus the purpose is to advance and exploit synergies among the many observational programmes devoted to island, coastal and ocean, to improve engagement with a variety of users for enhancing the timeliness, quality and range of services delivered; and to raise awareness of the societal benefits of ocean observations at the public and policy levels.
Subtask 8.1 Identify and articulate user needs and gaps in meeting the needs. Produce new marine and coastal observation network across the ocean observing and broader user communities by supporting and linking partners.
Subtask 8.2 Improve the Coastal Applications of the Data Cube and Modelling the Hydrodynamics and Biogeochemistry of the ocean environment.
Subtask 8.3 Extract the small island information and evaluate the sea level rise risk due to the global climate change for the developing states in the western and eastern Pacific.
Leaders: Basanta Shrestha (ICIMOD), Jiancheng Shi (RADI, China), Massimo Menenti (Netherland), QIU Yubao (RADI, China).
Under the AOGEOSS infrastructure, the ICIMOD a proposed regional Himalayan GEOSS, that aims to maximize the benefits of the Earth Observations and Geospatial Information for sustainable mountain development in the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region The mountain region is already a strong user for the Asia Pacific regions, and will benefit further from the successful coordinated resource of AOGOESS, including the satellite, in-situ data and assimilation data, infrastructure, and communication platform. The scope of Himalayan GEOSS includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan, with the efforts from all over the world. The ICIMOD mainly fosters the Himalayan GEOSS based on the commitment of its eight member countries, the main tasks and deliverables are,
Subtask 9.1 Develop and implement innovative EO and geospatial solutions and services for mountain specific situations aligning with regional priorities and GEO societal benefits areas that related to the low land areas, like Nepal, Pakistan, India; Actions: data products of the glacier and snow inventory from a long time at a history perspective (RADI, ICIMOD, before 2018); and water cycle parameters products related to the Himalaya region (ICIMOD, RADI, ~2018); New Earth Observation satellite for the water cycle mission (WCOM) (RADI, ~2019/2020);
Subtask 9.2 Develop capacities of the regional countries in using the EO data and information into developmental decision-making; Actions: Education activities with ICIMOD, and its member countries (China, ICIMOD); Dissemination of data products and utilities in Himalaya Regions (ICIMOD, Nepal, 2018~2019);
Subtask 9.3 Foster regional cooperation among the HKH countries and providing a regional platform on EO and geospatial information for mutual learning and sharing; Actions: Sustained Data Infrastructure building for the Himalaya mountain regions (ICIMOD, RADI, link with Task 10 and Task 11, 2018~2019); Setting up its regional data sharing mechanism within the low land area within the AO regions and its influence (ICIMOD, China, and etc. 2018~2019);
Subtask 9.4 Promote a Himalayan Spatial Data Infrastructure (H-SDI) through its established networks of institutions in the region and strategic alliances and partnerships with international agencies/initiatives. Actions: contribute to the data infrastructure (task 11) and global GEOSS(ICIMOD ~2019)
Leaders: Li Guoqing (RADI, China), David Hudson (CSIRO, Australia), TBD(Japan), Stefano Nativi (CNR, Italy).
Infrastructure and data services have been regarded as the core of GEOSS. To support regional sustainability and development of regional observing capacity, a data producing and sharing platform should be highlighted by AOGEOSS to improve regional EO data cooperation and ensure the Earth Observation data both generated in this region or by GEO Members and Participating Organizations in the other part of the world.
Subtask 10.1 Develop National GEOSS Data Facilities
The data rich countries in this area include Australia, China, Japan, Korea and Thailand etc. The National GEOSS data facilities are encouraged to be developed based on GCI tools and standards. Data CUBE in Australia and China-GEOSS DSNet in China will be adjusted and published in middle of 2017(M1-1, D1-1). It is expected other national GEOSS data facilities will be online at end of 2018 (D1-2).
Subtask 10.2 Develop Regional GEOSS Data Facilities
The Regional Data Sharing Platform includes AOGEOSS Knowledge Portal (M1-2, D1-3, by May of 2018), Regional Data Sharing Nodes (D1-4, linking to Subtask 1-1), Data Publication Services (D1-5, by July of 2017), and Community Portals (D1-6, linking to Task 4/5/6/7). It is the collection hub for the national GEOSS data facilities, will benefit to the data poor countries in this regional with its free and open data policy. The data brokers outside AO Region are also welcomed to connect AOGEOSS regional data facility and make contrition to the regional applications.
Subtask 10.3 Connect AOGEOSS Data Sharing Infrastructure to GEO Portal
As part of GEO GCI, AOGEOSS Data Sharing Infrastructure will work with GCI team to make communication with GEO portal through DAB protocol. The training and test connection will be taken as the first step (M1-3, by May of 2017), and regular data exchange will be in operation by Sept of 2018 (D1-7, linking to subtask 1-2).
Leaders: David Hudson (GA, Australia), YU Tao (RADI, China).
Subtask 11.1 Create dialogue to assess data format requirement among data-rich countries including Australia, China, Japan, Korea and Thailand. Datasets are encouraged to be developed based on GCI tools and DAB protocols, and new requirement will be defined and conformed in 2017.
Subtask 11.2 Consolidating operational users' needs and dynamic features of large volumes EO data to support development of AO Data Cube (AODC) data set format, which will be released in 2018. The Australia Geoscience Data Cube (AGDC) and Chinese Geoscience Data Tile DEM (CNGDT) are good examples, where the remote sensing products will be produced by integrating multi-satellite data with technologies like the normalization of remote sensing data from different sources, the algorithms for automatically producing by using multi-source remote sensing data, and data processing system including software and hardware supporting automatic and efficient generation of earth observation information.
Subtask 11.3 Advocate and support incorporation of pilot researches using standardized AODC format, with the help of activities in task 1 to task 9. The final assessment report will be released around the middle of 2019.
Subtask 11.4 Advocate and support incorporation of data catalogues among member countries and contributes to task 1 in the end of 2019.
Leaders: TBD(Japan), ZHOU Xiang(RADI, China), LIU Jiuliang(RADI, China), TBD(Australia).
The User engagement and Communications task serve several functions: users and partnership engagement, communication platform building, and synergy with the international communities and capacity building. The overall task is to establish a collaboration framework and platform for Members and Participating Organizations from both developed and developing regions in AO regions, which provide a core interface with other GEOSS communities. The AP Symposium is the explicit platform that serves as the lead position for the AOGEOSS user engagement and communication. The activities and actions include:
Subtask 12.1 Involvement of End Users: Conduct communication with the communities through the user’s groups in different conference, event, this is one of the task for the flag-shipped GEOSS Asia Pacific Symposium Actions: The AP Symposium is now operationally led by Japan, and it plays a critical role for the user’s engagement every year. (Annually to 2019)
Subtask 12.2 Capacity Building: conduct multilateral training courses and technical communication meetings on a regular basis, every year. Actions: promote the training activities related to the disaster mitigation (UNESCAP); AP Symposium services as a plat form for the capacity building (for a long run, ~2019).
Subtask 12.3 Dissemination and Outreach: Tackling SBAs in the region by utilizing the existing earth observation infrastructure and integrating observation and information services by linking the resources and applications of national scale and cultivating expansion of global applications. Actions: synergize the applications into the global applications for the sustainable development ability(AP Symposium platform, China, Japan, Australia and etc., ~2019); Establishment of AOGEOSS flagship website, building internet mobile platform for outreach (China, Australia, Japan and etc., ~2018).
Subtask 12.4 Partnership and Synergy, The effective partners are critical to the success of AOGEOSS in the complex area for its diversity of local and national mechanisms. Synergy with the international organizations will help a lot to improve the work for both AOGEOSS and the organizations. Actions: Cooperate with the International Organizations and Programmes in the field of Earth Observations, such as World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization(UNESCO), U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), the Partnership for Observation of the Global Oceans (POGO), and etc. (Australia, China, Japan, ICIMOD, UNESCAP, etc, ~2019).